Answer by Rory Young:

You can determine a good estimate of weight from an elephant's footprints or droppings.Here is something I wrote about estimating the gender, stature, age and weight of elephants from their tracks.

Left hind foot imprint of an adult female elephant

Trackinghas in recent times often been considered a general and vague skill, mainly useful for following animals and establishing rude estimates regarding the age of the tracks, the size of the animal and possibly a bit more information.Highly skilled trackers have been able to convincingly show their ability to reveal detailed information of the animal. However, this was never taken seriously. It was seen as a tool but not as empirical and therefore you could “not take it to court” so to speak.

However, while this ancient skill was being practiced unchanged since time immemorial in the wild, in the universities of the Western world a new version of tracking was developing from scratch in a strange convergent evolution. They called it forensic science. Empirical information was used to categorically determine the accuracy of different hypotheses. In 1892 in Argentina Juan Vucetich applied the first systemized use of fingerprint recording to law enforcement.

Fingerprints are nothing more than “transfer tracks”. A good example of transfer track is a muddy footprint on a kitchen floor. In the case of fingerprints the mud is instead oil secreted naturally by the body and instead of examining them with the naked eye they are enhanced and “lifted” for later comparison.

So, what has all this to do with tracking elephants? Well, Natural Philosophers as scientists were originally known, developed many different disciplines and applied their use of empirical data to determine much else. Amazingly, they reinvented the skill of tracking in order to gather the information they needed to conduct their studies.

Twenty two years ago, as a young ranger, I listened to my tutor, Rob Clifford, explain that taking the circumference of an elephant’s front foot and multiplying it by two and a half would give you its height at the shoulder.

This was something that I found completely amazing.

I had grown up tracking and hearing tales of tracking. In all that time I had only learned by experience, mainly using the right side of my brain and the obvious. It was good and gave me a natural awareness and ability that I could build on. However, it was the first time I had heard of mathematics or scientific methodology being applied to determine specific information.The scientists have been very busy. Trackers could greatly benefit by adding the results of scientific studies to their arsenals.

Although trackers themselves are not scientists; they are experts in their skill and often profession. They combine knowledge and practical ability gained over many years, often from early childhood, developing an amazing database, a set of skills and a highly developed intuition to become experts at what they do.

It is important that they do not let scientists take their job away from them, applying great knowledge but with limited skill. The trackers need to step up, whether professional trackers, hunters, guides or rangers, and start studying and applying this new knowledge (well not so new actually) and combining it with the more ancient knowledge.

Determining Stature in Elephants.

Why would we want to accurately determine the height of an elephant?

Interestingly an elephant never stops growing. They go through several different growth rates. They also slow right down at twenty five years old in the case of males and twenty years old in the case of females. That means we the age of the animal can be determined from its size.

Determining the age of elephants is very important for establishing the health and other status and other information pertaining to a population.

Although elephants also use instinct they are very dependent on acquired knowledge from older elephants, especially regarding food and behavior. It is important to have a healthy variety of ages within a population. With the current levels of poaching in Africa, particularly affecting bigger animals it is important to be able to properly analyze tracks.

Determining Stature From Tracks

The old rule of thumb I learned as a years ago is not bad but it is not accurate either.

When an elephant puts on or loses weight, whether because of illness, hunger, pregnancy or other reason, the width and circumference of the feet will change.For this reason and other reasons the most consistent and reliable foot measurement to use to correlate to height is the rear foot length; it deviates much less than any other foot measurement with weight loss and other variables that affect circumference.

The foot is measured in a straight line from the base of the rear foot to the front of the same foot.

Now comes the tricky part, determining the formula to use.

A general, rough, rule of thumb guide is 6:1. It is not accurate though, because the growth of elephants is not linear. Their growth rate changes throughout their lifetime.

Up to the age of nine years old the ratio of foot length to shoulder height is 5.83:1 Foot length at this age is recorded as below 43.67 Therefore to determine height at shoulder: Hind Foot Length x 5.83 = Shoulder Height

Between the ages of ten and fifteen years old the ratio of foot length to shoulder height is 6.11 Mean foot length at this age is 43.67cm which should be used to determine the age group. Therefore: Hind Foot Length x 6.11 = 267cm

Between the ages of fifteen and twenty five years old the ratio of foot length to shoulder height is 5.82. Mean foot length at this age is 49.81cm. Therefore to determine height at shoulder: 49.81 x 5.82 = 290cm

Between the ages of twenty five and thirty five years old the ratio of hind foot length to shoulder height is 5.68. Mean foot length at this age is 53.32 cm. Therefore to determine height at shoulder: 53.32 x 5.68 = 303cm

Above the age of thirty five years the ratio of hind foot length to shoulder height is 5.74 . Mean foot length at this age is 53.32 cm. Therefore to determine height at shoulder: 55.04 x 5.74 = 316cm

The average for all of these age groups is 5.83.

These figures were extrapolated from a study of elephants in Etosha National Park. Because heights vary according to different populations calculations can be made based on different mean heights for different age groups and a percentage difference applied in order to give a reasonably good basis for estimating height.

Determining Stature From Droppings

To determine stature using droppings the bolus diameter is used. “Bolus” is the name given to a single round dropping.

The diameter is measured as one would measure any circle; across the widest part.

The following table shows the different formulas to be used for determining the size of male elephants:

2-9.75 cms diameter Age = 0-5yrs Height at Shoulder = <160cm

9.75-12.25cms diameter Age = 5-10yrs Height at Shoulder = 160-200cm

12.25-13cms diameter Age = 10-15yrs Height at Shoulder = 200-230cm

13-14cms diameter Age = 15-20yrs Height at Shoulder = 230-250cm

14-14.25cms diameter Age = 20-25yrs Height at Shoulder = 250-260cm

14.25cms< diameter Age = 25yrs < Height at Shoulder = >260cm

The following table shows the different formulas to be used for determining the size of female elephants:

15.5cm< diameter Age = 25yrs < Height at Shoulder = >215cm

14.75-15.5cms diameter Age = 20-25yrs Height at Shoulder = 212-215cm

13.75-14.75cms diameter Age = 15-20yrs Height at Shoulder = 205-212cm

12-13.75cms diameter Age = 10-15yrs Height at Shoulder = 185-205cm

10-12cms diameter Age = 5-10yrs Height at Shoulder = 160-190cm

2-10cms diameter Age = 0-5yrs Height at Shoulder = <160cm

Shoulder Height to Age Table.

Females Males

Age (years) Shoulder height (cm) Hind Foot Length Age (years) Shoulder height (cm)

<1yr <110cm <1yr <105cm

1yrs 105-115cm 1yrs 105-115cm

2yrs 115-130cm 2yrs 115-130cm

3yrs 130-145cm 3yrs 130-140cm

4yrs 145-155cm 4yrs 140-150cm

5yrs 155-160cm 5yrs 150-160cm

6yrs 160-170cm 6yrs 160-170cm

7yrs 170-175cm 7yrs 170-175cm

8yrs 175-180cm 8yrs 175-185cm

9yrs 180-185cm 9yrs 185-190cm

10yrs 185-190cm 10yrs 190-200cm

11yrs 190-195cm 11yrs 200-210cm

12yrs 195-200cm 12yrs 210-215cm

13-14yrs 200-205cm 14yrs 215-220cm

15-17yrs 205-210cm 15yrs 220-230cm

18-23yrs 210-215cm 16-17yrs 230-235cm

60 215-220cm 18yrs 235-240cm

60< 220< 19yrs 240-245cm

20yrs 245-250cm

21-22yrs 250-255cm

23-24yrs 255-260cm

25-26yrs 260-265cm

27yrs 265-270cm

43.67 28-30yrs 270-275cm

31-33yrs 275-280cm

Estimating the Weight of an Elephant Using its Tracks Or Droppings

If the age and or height at the shoulder has been determined either using tracks or droppings then either can be used to estimate weight using the following table.

The following data has been taken from estimates used in zoos for feeding and medication purposes.

Age (years) Height (m) Mass (kg)

0 0.85 120

1 1.15 300

3 1.30 400

6 1.50 600

10 1.90 1,200

15 2.20 1,600

40 2.60 2,400

In theory height can be determined from stride length. However, there is as yet no been no empirical studies to determine exactly what the ratios are.