Answer by Rory Young:
There are many accounts of people not only surviving lion attacks but killing the lion (with something other than a gun).
One of the techniques recorded as used by the the Maasai and other African tribes hunt lions was to provoke a charge; covering themselves with their shield and wedging the butt of their spear against the ground and letting the animal impale itself.
One of the most amazing stories of bravery I have ever read was recorded by the explorer Frederick Courtney Selous.
Two Matabele (Ndebele) boys who had a cow in their care killed by a lion. Determined to redeem their honour and the cow, they set off with one shield and one Assegai. They provoked the lion to charge by approaching it while it was feeding.
The intention was for one of them to let the lion attack, while protecting himself with the shield. This would distract the lion, allowing the second chap to spear it. This is clever and shows they understood lion behaviour. A lion that attacks more than one person will usually stay on that one individual.
The first boy did hold the shield and let the lion attack him whilst covering himself with the shield and the second did spear the lion and kill it.
Unfortunately the boy who held the shield was killed by the lion and the second boy was mauled but survived. The cow was retrieved.
Then there is the amazing story of game ranger Harry Wolhuter who was attacked by two lions while riding a horse in the Kruger Park in 1904.
One of the lions grabbed him in its mouth by his shoulder and dragged him off to eat him.
Somehow he managed to draw his sheath knife knife and stab the lion, mortally wounding it.